Mechanical Biological Treatment (MBT), widely spread in Europe, is a process combined with mechanical separation and biological treatment. This is an alternative technology that can accomplish WtE (Waste-to-Energy) and landfill diversion. Bio-drying, aimed to produce high quality SRF, focused on removing moisture of waste through generated heat when biodegradable organic material is partially degraded by micro-organism. However, most of SRF production facilities in Korea consist of mechanical treatment. In those, 40% of input waste have been generated as residue disposed of in landfill. As a result of physico-chemical characteristic analysis of residue from target facilities, composition of food wastes, papers and plastics ranged 6.7 ~ 18.3%, 9.1 ~ 17.3%, and 5.8 ~ 12.2%, respectively. The moisture content of residue was about 43%, and low heating value was analyzed a range of 1,300 up to 1,900 kcal/kg. Results showed that combustible material having potential to produce SRF is discarded and the amount of biodegradable material such as food waste is still large. Therefore, we assumed it may cause pollution in terms of landfill gas emission and high concentrated leachate generation. In this study, recent trends of Bio-drying is discussed as the alternative technology to solve problems at SRF production facilities in South Korea.
Global increase in energy consumption has been known to cause the depletion of fossil fuels, and results in the increase of coal and oil price. Recently, waste to energy policy has received attention more and more, Korea imports approximately 97% of its total energy consumed, and there is an urgent necessity for the development of alternative energy source. Domestic waste management policy aims at zero waste community, which can be explained as the concept of 4R. The 4R consists of existing 3R (Reduce, Reuse and Recycle) and Recovery policies. Conversion of waste to energy, a form of renewable energy, has been known as an effective alternative for the increasing energy crisis. In this study, waste wood generated in D city was investigated as one of the alternative energy source. Expecially, the conversion of waste wood to solid refuse fuel (SRF) as an energy source was focused on. As an initial step to evaluate the applicability of waste wood as the alternative energy source, the waste wood sample were characterized by a proximate analysis and element and heavy metal contents analyses. In addition, heating values of the waste wood were calculated by presumption equation and Dulong's equation, and measured by bomb calorimeter. In summary, waste wood can be considered as one of the alternatives for effective energy source by meeting Korea standards for the quality and grade of SRF such as in lowheating values, contents of moisture, sulfur, and chlorine, and heavy metal contents
Nitrogen oxide (NOx) is one of air pollutants generated from the combustion of fuels, causing serious environmental problems. A novel externally oscillated staged combustion for RPF syngas was proposed in this work. The staged combustion could reduce NOx by the fuel-rich state combustion, while the external oscillation could achieve complete burn-out by stabilizing the flame. It also improved combustibility with an acceleration of the mass and heat momentum transfer. Parametric studies were achieved for the NOx reduction characteristics on the air staging and fuel staging in each case of with or without external oscillation. For the case of without oscillation, NOx reduction rate for the fuel staging had higher value as 75% than air staging as 67%. However, an application of external oscillation for both cases gives higher NOx reduction rate of 79%. The optimal condition for the oscillated fuel staging was that the air ratio in main burning zone, reburning zone and burnout zone were 1.1, 0.6 and 1.15, respectively, having 200 Hz of external oscillation.
Fast pyrolysis is one of the most viable and commonly used thermochemical conversion technologies which can be applied to both fossil-based and bio-based wastes. The conical spouted bed reactor is an alternative to fluidized beds and has been proven to be a versatile reactor for waste biomass fast pyrolysis, which allows obtaining high bio-oil yields because of its high heat and mass transfer rates and very short residence times. Understanding of the stable hydrodynamic operation range of the conical spouted bed is important for operation of fast pyrolysis reactor. This study characterizes the hydrodynamics of conical spouted bed using the analysis of pressure fluctuation signals. Stable hydrodynamic operation rages were identified by evaluation of pressure drop curve and FFT analysis. The stable operation range of a conical spouted bed was maintained while dominant frequency is 10 Hz. This appears to be promising cost-effective tool for precess control especially in fast pyrolysis systems.
Silica fume is a by-product generated in an electric arc furnace during the silicon, ferrosilicon, and other metal alloy manufacturing process. Prefabrication mineral additives such as fly ash, blast furnace slag and silica fume are commonly used as binder materials to improve cement quality, and to reduce cement consumption. Especially silica fume which has a high level of long-term chemical durability is most widely used in high-performance concrete. However, Korea relied 100% on imported silica fume, which is more expensive than other admixture, until 2014. So far, many studies have been conducted on the effects and performance of silica fume used in concrete or replacement material like metakaolin and blast-furnace slag. With the construction of ferrosilicon plant in Korea, silica fume, a by-product of ferrosilicon production process, has been generated as a new industrial waste. Waste products like silica fume contain heavy metal, hence its use as admixture could increase heavy metal contents in concrete. Therefore, to evaluate the environmental hazards of silica fume, when it is assumed to have been exposed to the environment, content analysis and leaching tests for pH, loss on ignition and trace elements (CN, Cr, Cr6+, Cu, Cd, Pb, As and Hg) in silica fume were conducted. The results of pH analysis and loss on ignition test were 2.18 ~ 7.39 and 0.9 ~ 2.1%, respectively. Analysis found that levels of race elements in silica fume produced in Korea were lower than Korean standards set out for designated waste.
Municipal Solid Wastes (MSW) are disposed of three types (recycling, incineration, landfill). The ashes made after the incineration are also recycled to minimize the volume of waste owing to reducing the amount of landfill. However, MSW incinerations (MSWI) in Seoul are not satisfied with the policy of Korea as a result of experiments about the chemical characteristics of the ash (Ignition loss, pH, Chloride, Cyanide, metals leaching). So, according to the policy, the MSWI in Seoul must be pretreated so as to recycle the MSWI. There are many pretreatments, three pretreatments (washing, weathering, CO2 aging) of which are selected through the literature review. Through Washing, the value of pH and chloride decrease. The optimal ratio (S/L) and time of Washing treatment is 1 : 10 (S/L) and 60 minutes, respectively. The CO2 aging method compensates the defect of weathering method which is required to react long-period time. After CO2 aging, pH and some Heavy metals decrease. So, We will compare and evaluate pre-treatment methods and we find the best method or new method.
Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) has been received much attention recently due to rapid changes in materials and shorter replacement of consumer products. Most of WEEEs are collected and recycled at the designated recycling centers in Korea, and final residues after recycling, sorting and shredding them to separate valuable and recyclable parts in series are left as forms of shredded plastic mixtures, which would be a problem to be resolved. By further plastics separation the polyurethane foams are mostly remained and becomes waste to be treated by appropriate methods. Gasification to produce syngas and incineration to recover energy for such polyurethane foam waste could be utilized instead landfill presently treated. In this study the experiment was conducted to evaluate such performance characteristics of thermal processes. Pelletized solid refuse fuel (SRF) was fabricated to feed into the test furnace even though it was light with low density. Thermogravimetric analysis, proximate analysis and higher heating value were made. During gasification and incineration, gas composition with gaseous pollutants were measured. Due to nitrogen content in polyurethane, nitrogen containing gaseous substances such as NH3 and HCN were observed with varying equivalent air ratios (ERs). The assessment of polyurethane waste foam to energy using incineration and gasification was made with finding out the optimal condition of air injection to emit less pollutants in both operations. Produced syngas could be utilized as energy fuels by lowering pollutants emission.
This study attempted to find an optimum operation codition for co-incineration of food waste and industrial wastes, focusing on injection position and rate. As the result of analysis, during injection of food waste incineration facilities, atmospheric pollutant standard satisfied all requirement. However when injected into the primary combustion chamber, the dioxin exceeded emission standard. This result has been determined that contaminants generated as processing the more amount (150 ton/day) than the designed capacity (72 ton/day) emitted and exceeded not completely removed from the control facilities.
This study provides an experimental result of thermal mercury reduction and condensation characteristics for inventing a mercury recovery technology from the waste sludge which contains high concentration of mercury. Thermal treatment was conducted in the temperature range of up to 900℃ from 600℃ with different residence time using a waste sludge from domestic industrial facility. Properties of powder material condensed after thermal treatment were analyzed to assess the effectiveness of thermal processing. Leaching characteristics of bottom ash and condensed powder material were analyzed by Korean Standard Leaching Test method (KSLT). Cold vapor atomic absorption spectroscopy (CVAAS) Hg analyzer was used for the analysis of mercury content in solid and liquid samples. We found that mercury contents was concentrated compared with waste sludge. However, the mercury concentration of leached solution from the condensed powder material was very low. The chemical characteristics of condensed powder material was estimated using experimental analysis and literature survey. In order to recover purified elemental mercury, the further researches of refining experiments would be required.
Neodymium(Dysprosium)-permanent magnets (Nd(Dy)-Fe-B Magnets) have necessity and potential to be recycled given their high criticality and important roles in various high-tech fields as well as the characteristics of being selectively disengaged from the assemblies in which they are used. This study focused on secondary material flow (downstream) of Nd(Dy)-Fe-B Magnets in South Korea. The quantitative information includes the primary data of each category (Emission - Collection - Disengagement - Resource Recovery - Remanufacturing) with domestic recycling situations of the magnets, which can contribute to more effective policy-making. As a result of the material flow analysis, this study provides the primary data of Nd and Dy at each stage and inhibiting factors (bottleneck) of Nd-Fe-B Magnets recycling and suggests the method for improvement of recycling of rare earth magnet.
This study evaluated the applications of ecotoxicity for management plan on industrial waste, and suggested the strategy for assessment of the ecotoxicological characteristic. From the results of ecotoxicity for waste synthetic resin, sludge, slag, waste dust, etc. 20 industrial wastes, 15 waste samples were analyzed in ecotoxic. In particular, 8 waste samples (about 62%) among the 13 non-hazardous wastes were confirmed ecotoxic. Therefore, the additional studies are necessary by increasing the number of samples and confirming the various types of waste. The correlation coefficient of arsenic and vanadium was highly estimated that 0.68, 0.44, respectively. The ecotoxicity for wastes should be managed as a comprehensive toxic in the future. Because the wastes has the high potential ecotoxic by the possibility of containing hazardous materials with discharge process and the interaction of heavy metals, ions, salt, and pH and so on. The hazardous characteristic of waste for ecotoxicity should be evaluated through the ecotoxic analysis in 3 steps by the proposed procedure for assessment of ecotoxicological characteristic.
Although the scope of Official Development Assistance(ODA) projects has been expanded to the energy and environmental sectors, many Green ODA projects have experienced difficulties in sustainable operation because of insufficient consideration on the real status of recipient countries. Selecting technology to apply is the first step on the ODA process, however, there has been lack of study on evaluation indicators, especially for waste-to-energy. Therefore, we have explored the evaluation indicators for waste-to-energy technologies selection based on the case of Phnom Penh capital city in Cambodia. The study was performed through literatures review, field trips, and interviewing local officials and experts. Finally, we have suggested following indicators: secure of raw materials (waste price, collection, waste quality), sustainable operation (construction and operation cost, land use, management ability), and market condition (prices of substitutes, demanders, required quality of products).