The IPCC methodology for estimating methane emissions from a solid waste landfill is based on the first order decay (FOD) method. One emission factor in the model is the methane generation potential (L0) that is estimated from the amount of decomposable degradable organic carbon (DOC) in a solid waste landfill. L0 is estimated based on the fraction of DOC in the waste, the fraction of the degradable organic carbon that decomposes under anaerobic conditions (DOCf), methane correction factor (MCF), and the fraction of methane in generated landfill gas (F). The other emission factor is the methane generation rate constant (k). The IPCC recommended that every country needs to develop country-specific key parameters(DOC, DOCf, k) more appropriate for its circumstances and characteristics. The objective of this research was to investigate the greenhouse gas emission factor (k) and parameters (DOC, DOCf) for wood wastes in a solid waste landfill. To investigate DOC, DOCf, and k for wood wastes, the biodegradable rate of wood wastes was determined by comparing the composition of excavated samples (L-1, L-2) with their fresh ones (F-1, F-2). The DOC values were found to be 48.36% and 45.27% for F-1 and F-2, respectively. It showed that the IPCC default value of DOC for wood wastes is appropriate for estimating methane emission. The maximum DOCf (0.17 and 0.18) or each wood waste excavated from G landfill was found to be lower compared with those for IPCC. The IPCC provided that default values of DOCf 0.5. The k values were found to be 0.0055 and 0.0058 year.1 for F-1 and F-2, respectively. The result confirmed that the biodegradation rate of wood wastes was very slow due to its lignin.
In this study, microcrystalline cellulose, which is a cell wall polysaccharide commonly contained in sea algae (brown algae, red algae and green algae), is used in substitution for cellulose and is hydrolyzed with seven enzymes available in the market. The seven enzymes selected are Viscozyme® L, Celluclast® 1.5 L, Saczyme, Novozym® 33095, Fungamyl® 800 L, Driselase® Basidiomycetes sp., and Alginate Lyase. To maximize the production of the reducing sugar by hydrolysis with each enzyme, we optimized the quantity of enzymes, reaction time, pH, and reaction temperature as four independent variables, and the reducing sugar production rate as a dependent variable, utilizing response surface methodology (RSM) to optimize the enzyme hydrolysis reaction conditions. Among the tested enzymes, the production rate of reducing sugar by Celluclast® 1.5 L was the highest. Hence, the predicted optimum conditions (8.5 % enzyme, reaction time 27.6 h, pH 4.1 and reaction temperature 44.1oC) were directly applied to Laminaria japonica and proved the predicted optimum conditions with experiments. Under the optimum conditions, the sugar yield of 137.6 mg/g-Laminaria japonica (experimental value) was obtained.
Anaerobic mesophilic batch tests of dairy cow manure, dairy cow manure/saw dust mixture and dairy cow manure/ rice hull mixtures collected from bedded pack barn were carried out to evaluate their ultimate biodegradability and two distinctive decay rates (k1 and k2) with their corresponding degradable substrate fractions (S1 and S2). Each 3 liter batch reactor was operated for more than 100 days at substrate to inoculum ratio (S/I) of 1.0 as an initial total volatile solids (TVS) mass basis. Ultimate biodegradabilities of 37 ~ 46% for dairy cow manure, 32 ~ 40% for dairy manure/saw dust mixture and 31 ~ 38% for dairy cow manure/rice hull mixture were obtained respectively. The readily biodegradable fraction of 90% (S1) of dairy manure BVS (So) degraded with in the initial 29 days with arange of k1 of 0.074 day.1, where as the rest slowly biodegradable fraction (S2) of BVS degraded for more than 100 days with the long term batch reaction rate of 0.004 day.1. For the dairy manure/saw dust mixture and dairy manure/rice hull mixture, their readily biodegradable portions (S1) appeared 71% and 76%, which degrades with k1 of 0.053 day.1 and 0.047 day.1 for an initial 30 days and 38 days, respectively. Their corresponding long term batch reaction rates were 0.03 day.1.
Efforts were made to identify the optimum operational condition of Semi-continuously Fed and Mixed Reactor (SCFMR) to treat the dairy cow manure and saw dust mixture. Step-wise increase in organic loading rates (OLRs) and decrease in hydraulic retention times (HRTs) were utilized until the biogas volume became significantly decreased in SCFMR at mesophilic temperature (35oC). The optimum operating condition of the SCFMR fed with TS 15% dairy cow manure and saw dust mixture was found to be at HRTs of 30 ~ 35 days and its corresponding OLRs of 3.5 ~ 4.3 kgVS/ m3-day. The optimum ranges of biogas and methane production rates were 1.36 ~ 1.47 volume of biogas per volume of reactor per day (v/v-d) and 1.0 ~ 1.14 v/v-d, respectively. This result was due to the high alkalinity concentration of SCFMR fed with the original substrate, dairy cow manure and saw dust mixture whose alkalinity was more than 10,000 mg/L as CaCO3. The parameters for the reactor stability, the ratios of volatile acids and alkalinity concentrations (V/A) and the ratio of propionic acid and acetic acid concentrations (P/A) appeared to be 0.07 ~ 0.09 and 0.38 ~ 0.43, respectively,that were greatly stable in operation. The Total Volatile Solids (TVS) removal efficiency based on the biogas production was 39 ~ 45% at the optimum HRTs. Free ammonia toxicity was not experienced at above 160mg/L due to the acclimation of high concentration of ammonia by the high reactor TS content above 9.0%.
In a mercury leaching test for waste using the Korean Standard Method (ES 06404.1), the pre-treatment process of an eluate is very complicated with a high possibility of contamination and low mercury recovery rate. It is also difficult to analyze multiple samples in a short time and the process generates experimental wastes. Accordingly, a direct mercury analyzer (DMA) applying thermal decomposition gold-amalgamation analysis has been recently used. The method shows a relatively high recovery rate for solid samples without complicated pre-treatment and it can be applied to both liquid and solid samples as the EPA method 7473 does. In order to use the auto-sampler in DMA for analyzing many elution samples from waste, this study checked recovery rates depending on acid solutions and additives during continuous analysis. The result showed a significant drop in recovery and precision except for an L-cysteine added sample. Considering commonly used acid-treatment of wastes, three types of acid solutions (nitrate, hydrochloric acid and sulfate) were chosen for analysis, and precision and accuracy were relatively high in nitric acid solution. It has been determined that accuracy and precision improved when 0.01% L-cysteine was added as an additive and this reduced the impact of continuous measurement. Therefore, during analysis of liquid samples or eluted samples using DMA continuously, introducing suitable additives is necessary depending on pre-treatment method in order to improve accuracy and precision in the analysis of mercury.
Considering the high potential of the widely-used halogenated hydrocarbons on the global warming and ozone depletion, the development of effective thermal destruction methods of these compounds are quite urgent and indispensible. As part of the research efforts of this area, the destruction of CCl4 and flame characteristics have beeninvestigated numerically by the co-firing CCl4 with CH4 in an industrial LNG-fired combustor as a function of molar ratio of the CCl4 to CH4 using a commercial code of STAR-CCM+. Considering a broad range of Damkohler number associated with the process of intensive CHCs (Chlorinated hydrocarbons) combustion with auxiliary fuel together with the inhibition reaction especially near flammability limits, a proper combustion modeling of CCl4 thermal destruction is quite desirable. In this study, however, after careful review of the literature about the flame characteristics of halogenated hydrocarbon together with the previous study about the modeling of the CCl4 flame based on the data of burning velocity, the eddy breakup turbulent combustion model was employed since it is quite reasonably assumed that chain branching reaction looks dominant in most flame region over the halogenated inhibition effect in strong turbulent reacting flows. One of the most useful results based on this study is that; without any incorporation of flame inhibition effect, the length of co-fired flame increases steadily as the ratio of CCl4 to CH4 (R) increases from 0.0, 0.1, 0.2 to 0.5, and 1.0 together with the increase of the maximum flame and exit gas temperature. The reason of the increase of the flame length with the increase of flame temperature can be explained by the presence of the additional CCl4 fuel with low heating value. Further a detailed discussion has been made on the thermal destruction of CCl4 together with the Cl2 concentration by Deacon reaction.
The large amount of waste oil sludge was generated from waste oil purification process, oil bunker, or the ocean plant. Although it has high calorific values, it should be treated as a designated waste. During the recycling process of construction and demolition wastes or the trimming process of woods, a lot of sawdust is produced. In this study, the feasibility of BOF (biomass and waste oil sludge fuel) as a renewable energy source was estimated. For manufacturinga BOF, a press type pelletizing was better than an extruder type and also 40 ~ 60% of mixing ratio in waste oil sludge was appropriate to produce a pellet. The pellet was 13 mm in diameter and 20 mm in length. There was no fixed carbon in waste oil sludge, and its carbon content and higher heating value were 63.90% and 9,110 kcal/kg, respectively. With an increse of mixing ratio of sawdust, the carbon content and heating value of the BOF were dropped, but fixed carbon content was increased. The heating value of BOF was in the range of 6,400 ~ 7,970 kcal/kg at the mixing ratio of 40 ~ 60% in waste oil sludge. It means that the BOF can be classified as the 1stgrade solid fuel. In TGA experiment carried out at heating rate of 10℃/min and under nitrogen atmosphere, thermal decomposition of sawdust was occurred in two steps, but waste oil sludge was destructed in one step. The initiated cracking temperature of sawdust and waste oil sludge was 300 and 280℃ in respective and after 450℃ the thermal decomposition process of sawdust was slowly progressed by 800℃ in contrast to waste oil sludge. Thermal decomposition of waste oil sludge was finished around 600℃. It can be considered that this difference is due to the fixed carbon content. Thermal decomposition pattern for the pellet of mixing ratio over 50% in waste oil sludge was similar to that for waste oil sludge and thermal cracking was occurred between 300 and 350℃. As the mixing ratio of waste oil sludge in the pellet increased, the reaction of thermal cracking became fast.
Forest waste was interested as biomass to produce new renewable energy among various materials. To find appropriate conditions of the bio-ethanol production, acid hydrolysis and glucose fermentation experiments were conducted under various conditions. The acid-hydrolysis experiment results show that yield of glucose were increased as raise of temperature, acid concentration and reaction time. As a result, the optimal conditions for producing glucose from forest waste was under 110℃, 35%, and 100 min, respectively. The yield of glucose, which was generated from acid-hydrolysis experiment, was 2.419 mg/g·g from softwood and was 1.192 mg/g·g from hardwood. Also, it was investigated that acetic acid was more efficient than sulfuric acid for acid-hydrolysis process.
The purpose of this study is to identify the materials flow of aluminum cans from its production, manufacturing, distribution, consumption to its discarding, while finding problems in the materials flow diagram in carrying out recycling, and to present improvement measures for relevant systems and policies. Through various statistics, it was found that the actual amount of aluminum ingots distributed in Korea is 1,808,597 tons. From this 381,802 tons of aluminum plates were used for domestic uses, 75,070 tons were used to produce cans, and it was found that 50,073 tons of can products were produced and distributed in Korea. The 50,073 tons of wastes for separate collection was 96% and recycling was 76% for a total of 38,297 tons for recycling. Upon examining the recycling path, it was found that can-to-can was 35% equivalent to 13,403 tons, while 14,100 tons were melted for alloys and 10,794 tons were used as deoxidizing agents for blast furnaces. According to such studies, a materials flow diagram was drafted and the problems in recycling for each stage were reviewed. In result, plans to improve packaging materials and structures in the production stage, plans to restrict inclusion of foreign particles in the discard and selection stage, plans to provide different support in funding and granting quality ratings in the sorting and compression stages, and plans to apply as recycling designated business systems for high-value recycling in the resourcing stage were proposed.
Among many types of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) facilities, wet type FGD using lime or limestone is most popular in the world because of its simplicity of operation and availability of lime and limestone. Seawater desulfurization utilizes the alkalinity of seawater, thus requires no addition of lime and limestone. The efficiency of seawater desulfurization depends on the variation of alkalinity of seawater at different locations. This study presents the effect of gas-water ratio and total alkalinity of absorbing solution on the removal efficiency of sulfur dioxide from the flue gas by means of seawater. Also this study provides an alternative way to increase total alkalinity of seawater by utilizing fly ash from coal-fired power plants. The increase of removal efficiency with increase of alkalinity was measured as 0.26 ± 0.01% per ppm of bicarbonate alkalinity from the set of experiments using seawater, underwater, and distilled water, the alkalinity of which were 111 ppm, 38 ppm, and 1 ppm, respectively. Capability to increase total alkalinity of seawater using fly ash was confirmed.
Recycling of food wastes was tried based on fermenting and composting food wastes using a microbial consortium. Manufactured compost (using 11.3% food waste) turned out to be effective in increasing soil fertility and crop growth (radish; Raphanus sativus). More specifically, the treatment of the composted food wastes enabled a stimulated growth of radish leaves by 80% and an increased uptake of δ15NAIR by 250% compared with a commercial organic compost. Moreover, the compost derived from the wastes appeared to allow a sustainable management of nitrogen fertilizer compared with the chemical fertilizer, minimizing nitrogen pollution. The microbial community analysis showed significant difference in the microbial community pattern in soil treated with the composted food wastes relative to soil treated with a commercial organic fertilizer or a chemical fertilizer. The results may indicate that the wastes processed by the consortium could result in an efficient recycling of the nuisance materials such as food wastes and other organic solid wastes.
Waterworks sludge is currently disposed after being used in water treatment, spending enormous cost. In order to protect the environment and avoid wasting, this study aims to develop high-temperature clay bodies using waterworks sludge for art tiles. As starting materials, feldspar, clay, and waterworks sludge, in place of silica, were used by triangular coordinates. According to the results indicated, the 40% sludge contained bodies showed good results which have low water absorption and high fracture strength in physical properties and color for art tile. The result of analyses showed mainly mullite and anorthite were developed in the bodies. Addition of Ca volume or firing at the higher temperature promoted the formation of anorthite and improved the strengths of the body. When mullite and anorthite coexisted in the bodies, fracture strength and water absorption showed maximum value, but overuse of Ca caused growth in porosity and absorption. The body color was affected by color development of iron. When mullite was doped by Fe3+ hematite appeared red and then increase of anorthite by addition of Ca, the magnetite was detected in the body and they appeared from dark gray to black shade color. Bodies of art tiles using recycled waste materials and waterworks sludge showed comparative properties such as strength, absorption, and bending strength to those of traditional tiles.
Waste oil sludge was generated from waste oil purification process, oil bunker, or the ocean plant. Although it has high calorific values, it should be treated as a designated waste. During the recycling process of construction and demolition wastes or the trimming process of woods, a lot of sawdust is produced. In this study, the feasibility of BOF (biomass and waste oil sludge Fuel) as a source of renewable energy was estimated. To estimate combustion characteristics, a lab scale batch type combustion reactor was used and temperature fluctuation and the flue gas composition were measured for various experimental conditions. The results could be summarized as follows: the maximum CO2 concentration in the flue gas was increased with increasing waste oil sludge content in BOF. SO2 concentration in the flue gas was showed a tendency such as the highest CO2 concentration in the flue gas. With increasing waste oil sludge content in BOF, the combustion time was rather shorter although the increase of the CO2 concentration in the flue gas was delayed. Because the carbon conversion rate showed small difference with increasing the mixing ratio of waste oil sludge in BOF, BOF with the mixing ratio of waste oil sludge of 40% was effective for combustion. With decreasing the air/fuel ratio and the mixing ratio of waste oil sludge in BOF, activation energy and frequency factor were increased. The optimal air/fuel ratio for the combustion of BOF was 1.5.
Hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) is an ozone-depleting substance that is subject to environmental regulations based on the Montreal Protocol, and in Republic of Korea, which is regarded as a developing country, its use will be restricted in phase starting in 2013 until finally being prohibited in 2030. HCFC is regulated based on the Tokyo Protocol, HCFC is a regulated construction material for carbon dioxide reduction with GWP of 1,700 ~ 2,400 times that of CO2, with a GWP of 1. KS M 3808 than in the reference indicated in the C5 (15 : 15 : 20 : 50%) and C9 (20 : 10 : 20 : 50%) 0.33 mm 0.31 mm Cell size is shown in the analysis, etc. The compressive strength of the insulation, foaming agent mixing ratio according bending failure load, the thermal conductivity (initial and long-term), moisture permeability coefficient, combustible results, showed superior.